Defining Your Target Market: A Comprehensive Guide


How to Define Your Target Market?


In the exciting world of startups, where innovation meets opportunity, one concept continually stands as pivotal to success - defining your target market. Understanding and clearly defining your target market and target audience is not merely a marketing strategy, but it is foundational to your entire business plan. The importance of this task cannot be overstated, for it plays an instrumental role in shaping your product development, business identity, and marketing efforts (Slater & Narver, 1994).


At its core, a target market is the specific group of people at which a product or service is aimed. These are the individuals who you believe are most likely to become your customers. A well-defined target market is the difference between broadcasting a message into a crowded marketplace versus delivering it directly to the individuals who are genuinely interested and likely to take action.


Complementing the concept of the target market is that of the target audience. While the terms are often used interchangeably, your target audience refers to the specific group of people you are trying to reach with your marketing campaign. Your target audience might be narrower than your target market, for example, focusing on a particular segment of your overall market during a promotional campaign or the launch of a new product feature.


Finally, market segments are essentially the building blocks of your target market. Market segmentation is the practice of dividing your target market into approachable groups. These segments are typically based on demographic data, such as age range, income level, or geographic location, but can also include factors such as buying habits or shared characteristics. Understanding and defining these segments can help to refine your product or service and tailor your marketing strategies for maximum impact.


In the sections that follow, we will delve deeper into the importance of defining your target market, the intricacies of identifying and analyzing your target market, and the application of this knowledge in your marketing strategy. Whether you are an aspiring entrepreneur just starting your journey, or a seasoned small business owner seeking to refine your approach, gaining a comprehensive understanding of your target market is a cornerstone of sustainable success.

I. Introduction 


II. The Importance of Defining a Target Market 

A. Role of target market in marketing efforts 

B. How defining a target market streamlines marketing strategy 

C. Impact of target market on marketing campaigns


III. Understanding Different Types of Target Markets 

A. Different types of target markets and target audiences 

B. Specific target market and niche market examples, including a case study from the athletic shoe industry


IV. How to Identify Your Target Market

A. Guide on how to identify your target market, including the use of demographic data and market research

B. Understanding social media platforms for target market research C. Finding potential customers and existing customers


V. Segmenting Your Target Market 

A. Market segmentation and its benefits 

B. Market segment examples and the process of creating smaller segments 

C. Creation of customer profiles, and buyer personas


VI. Analyzing Your Target Market 

A. Overview of target market analysis, using analytics tools 

B. Social media marketing strategy examples 

C. The role of the social media marketer in target market analysis


VII. Understanding Your Target CustomersA. Detailed discussion of shared characteristics, education level, family status, marital status, and income level 

B. Geographic location considerations 

C. Understanding buying habits of your target customer


VIII. Using Existing Data to Refine Your Target Market 

A. Using data from current customers and focus groups 

B. Role of industry trends and existing data


IX. Applying Your Target Market Strategy 

A. Incorporating target market strategy into your overall marketing plan and marketing mix 

B. Developing specific marketing strategies and marketing campaigns tailored to your specific group (target market sets)


X. Challenges in Target Marketing and Overcoming Them 

A. Challenges like crowded marketplace, untapped markets, and targeting multiple target markets 

B. Role of digital marketing in reaching different target audiences 

C. Case study in the small businesses sector


XI. Conclusion 


II. The Importance of Defining a Target Market


Defining your target market is a powerful exercise that brings clarity, focus, and alignment to your entire business, particularly your marketing efforts. It forms the basis upon which your marketing strategy is built, impacts the effectiveness of your marketing campaigns, and shapes the direction of your product or service development.


A. Role of Target Market in Marketing Efforts


Understanding your target market can be likened to having a compass in the middle of a voyage. It gives direction and purpose to your marketing efforts. Instead of aimlessly spreading resources in an attempt to appeal to everyone, your marketing efforts become more focused and intentional when you have a clearly defined target market. This focus leads to more efficient and effective use of resources, including time, finances, and personnel, and increases the likelihood of your message resonating with the intended audience. Having a clear target market also informs decisions about pricing, distribution channels, and even the product or service you offer (Wedel & Kamakura, 2000).


B. How Defining a Target Market Streamlines Marketing Strategy


Marketing is all about connecting with your customers at the right place and the right time. When you have a well-defined target market, it's much easier to determine where and how to reach your customers. This knowledge can guide decisions about which social media platforms to use, the tone and language of your content, and what type of marketing messages are likely to be most effective. A clear understanding of your target market can also highlight gaps in the market that your business can fill, giving you a competitive advantage.


C. Impact of Target Market on Marketing Campaigns


A well-defined target market directly impacts the success of your marketing campaigns. It allows for personalized marketing, where campaigns are tailored to resonate with your specific target audience, fostering a deeper connection between your brand and its consumers. Personalized campaigns are more likely to be successful because they consider and cater to the unique needs, wants, and preferences of the target market segment.

Further, understanding your target market enhances the measurement and evaluation of your marketing campaigns. It allows you to set realistic expectations, make informed predictions, and accurately measure success. In the end, defining your target market increases the return on your marketing investment by reducing waste and improving effectiveness.

Remember, no business – not even the giants like Amazon and Google – can target everyone. Attempting to do so will only dilute your marketing efforts and leave your message lost in the crowd. Defining your target market, therefore, is not an option but a necessity for your business to thrive in today's competitive marketplace.


III. Understanding Different Types of Target Markets


In the wide-ranging field of marketing, we often hear the terms "target market" and "target audience." While they are related, they're not interchangeable. Understanding these terms and their nuances, along with different target market examples and the concept of niche markets, is essential for effective marketing. Let's delve deeper into this topic, also incorporating a practical case study from the athletic shoe industry.


A. Different types of target markets and target audiences


A target market refers to a specific group of potential customers at whom a company's products or services are aimed. It's the entire group to whom products or services are intended to appeal. Different target markets can be identified based on shared characteristics such as age range, income level, geographical location, education level, family status, and buying habits.

On the other hand, a target audience is a more precise subset of the target market, defined by how they will be reached, usually through a specific marketing campaign or promotional message. For instance, while the target market might be all small businesses, the target audience for a particular marketing campaign might be small businesses in the athletic shoe industry.


B. Specific target market and niche market examples


A specific target market example can be "millennial small business owners in the technology sector." Here, the business has refined its target market based on age (millennials), occupation (small business owners), and industry (technology sector).

Niche markets take specificity to an even higher level. A niche market is a distinct segment within your target market that you may choose to serve exclusively. For example, vegan runners represent a niche market within the larger target market of all runners.


To illustrate these concepts, let's consider a case study from the athletic shoe industry. Suppose a company manufactures a line of running shoes made from sustainable materials. The target market might be "environmentally-conscious consumers interested in fitness," but they could further identify a niche market such as "vegan marathon runners."

This company could then conduct a marketing campaign specifically aimed at this niche market. They might partner with vegan fitness influencers on social media platforms to promote their products or sponsor plant-based athletic events.


IV. How to Identify Your Target Market


Every entrepreneur aims to connect effectively with their potential customers. The foundation of this connection starts with understanding who your target market is. Identifying your target market involves a systematic process of collecting and interpreting data about your potential and existing customers. This data then informs your marketing strategy, helping you reach the people most likely to be interested in your product or service.


A. How to Identify Your Target Market Using Demographic Data and Market Research


One of the most effective methods to identify your target market is through demographic data and market research. Begin by gathering demographic data about your current customers and potential customers. This information typically includes factors such as age range, income level, education level, marital status, and geographic location. If you're launching a new product or service, you might use industry trends and untapped markets to guide your demographic data collection (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980).


Next, conduct market research to understand your customers' needs, preferences, and buying habits better. Methods can range from traditional focus groups and surveys to data analytics tools that gather existing data from a range of sources. Market research should also consider psychological aspects, such as motivations, frustrations, and aspirations, providing a comprehensive understanding of your target market.


B. Understanding Social Media Platforms for Target Market Research


In today's digital age, social media platforms are a treasure trove of information about potential and existing customers. Analytics from these platforms can provide valuable insights into audience demographics, behaviors, and preferences.


Different social media platforms tend to attract different target audiences. For instance, a younger demographic might be more active on platforms like TikTok or Instagram, while a professional audience is more likely found on LinkedIn. Understanding the nuances of these platforms can help you pinpoint where your marketing efforts will be most effective.


Moreover, social media allows for two-way communication with your target audience. By observing and interacting with your audience, you can learn more about their needs, preferences, and perceptions of your brand.


C. Finding Potential Customers and Existing Customers


Potential customers can be found in many places, depending on your product or service. Market research will help you identify these areas, whether it's specific social media platforms, geographic locations, or even at events and trade shows. It's essential to monitor industry trends and be aware of any untapped markets that might contain potential customers.


Don't overlook your existing customers in this process. They can provide a wealth of information about what you're doing right and where you can improve. Plus, they can often lead you to new customers through word-of-mouth referrals.


V. Segmenting Your Target Market


Market segmentation is a cornerstone of effective marketing strategy. It enables you to deliver more targeted and relevant messages to your customers, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of your marketing efforts.


A. Market Segmentation and Its Benefits


Market segmentation, as defined by Sally Dibb in her 2005 study, is the process of dividing your broad target market into smaller, more homogeneous groups based on shared characteristics. The benefits of this approach are manifold. By focusing on specific market segments, you can tailor your product offerings, marketing messages, and overall strategy to meet the unique needs and preferences of these groups. This not only optimizes your marketing efforts, but also allows for a more personalized approach, which can lead to greater customer satisfaction and loyalty.


B. Market Segment Examples and the Process of Creating Smaller Segments


Consider the athletic shoe industry. An overarching target market could be everyone who needs shoes, but this is far too broad. By segmenting this market, brands can create more targeted strategies. Segments might include professional athletes, casual exercisers, outdoor enthusiasts, or even fashion-focused individuals. Each of these segments has different needs and wants, necessitating different products and marketing strategies.


The process of creating these smaller segments involves analyzing your customer base and the broader market to identify key characteristics and patterns. These might include demographic factors (age, gender, income level), geographic location, or behaviors (buying habits, product usage). Once these segments are identified, they can be targeted individually with tailored marketing strategies.


C. Creation of Customer Profiles, and Buyer Personas


An effective way to understand and visualize your market segments is through the creation of customer profiles and buyer personas. A customer profile outlines the key characteristics of a group within your target market, while a buyer persona provides a more detailed and personalized depiction of an individual within that group.


Creating these profiles and personas involves gathering and analyzing data about your customers. This data might come from market research, social media analytics, sales data, and customer feedback. The more comprehensive your understanding, the more accurate and useful your profiles and personas will be.


VI. Analyzing Your Target Market


Understanding your target market is essential, but it doesn't stop there. Regularly analyzing your target market will help to keep your business abreast of changes in customers' needs, preferences, and behaviors, ensuring that your marketing strategy remains effective and relevant.


A. Overview of Target Market Analysis, Using Analytics Tools


Target market analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing data about your target market to gain a comprehensive understanding of the market size, customer behaviors, and trends. This analysis often involves using analytics tools, which can provide valuable insights into demographic data, market segments, and buying habits.


For instance, Google Analytics can provide data about your website's users, such as their geographic location, age range, and the devices they use to access your site. Social media platforms also provide analytics tools that can help you understand your audience's demographics, interests, and online behaviors.

Lambin (2010) emphasizes the importance of ongoing target market analysis in strategic and operational marketing. Regular analysis helps you to keep up with changes in the market, identify potential opportunities, and make informed decisions about your marketing efforts.


B. Social Media Marketing Strategy Examples


Social media marketing strategies involve using social media platforms to connect with your audience, build your brand, increase sales, and drive website traffic. This can involve publishing great content on your social media profiles, listening to and engaging with your followers, running social media advertisements, and analyzing your results.


A simple strategy might involve targeting posts towards specific market segments, utilizing different types of content that resonate with each segment. More complex strategies might involve running promotional campaigns on social media, using ad targeting options to reach specific audiences based on factors like age, interests, and geographic location.


C. The Role of The Social Media Marketer in Target Market Analysis


The social media marketer plays a crucial role in target market analysis. They can use social media analytics tools to understand the audience on each platform, identifying key characteristics of followers and engaging content.


For instance, they can monitor which posts generate the most engagement, track follower growth over time, and analyze audience demographics. This information can be used to refine social media marketing strategies, ensuring they effectively reach and engage the target market.


VII. Understanding Your Target Customers


Having a clear understanding of your target customers is the cornerstone of any successful marketing strategy. It involves delving deeper into their shared characteristics, education level, family status, marital status, income level, geographic location, and buying habits.


A. Shared Characteristics, Education Level, Family Status, Marital Status, and Income Level


Shared characteristics among your target customers provide a broader overview of your audience. These may include factors like age range, lifestyle, values, hobbies, and more. It's crucial to note that target customers with shared characteristics will likely have similar needs and preferences.


Education level can impact a customer's buying decisions and preferences. For instance, a product or service that requires a certain level of understanding or expertise may appeal more to a highly educated target audience.


Family status and marital status can also significantly influence buying decisions. For instance, a married individual with children may prioritize family-oriented products and services over personal luxury items.


Income level affects purchasing power and shapes the kind of products and services that your target customers can afford. Understanding your customers' income level can guide you in pricing your product or service appropriately.


B. Geographic Location Considerations


Geographic location is a crucial factor to consider when targeting your customers. The region in which your customers live can influence their needs, preferences, and purchasing habits. For instance, a business selling winter clothing would likely target customers in colder climates. Similarly, if you're offering a localized service, you'd want to target customers in a specific geographical location.


C. Understanding Buying Habits of Your Target Customers


Understanding the buying habits of your target customers is essential for your marketing strategy. According to Peter and Olson (2010), buying habits involve understanding how often customers make purchases, the factors that influence their buying decisions, and their preferred shopping channels.


For instance, you might find that your target customers tend to make purchases during certain times of the year, or that they're more likely to buy when offered certain types of promotions. Such insights can help you time your marketing campaigns more effectively and choose the right promotional strategies.


Furthermore, knowing whether your customers prefer to shop online or in physical stores can guide your decisions about where to focus your marketing efforts and how to best distribute your product or service.


VIII. Using Existing Data to Refine Your Target Market


Refining your target market is a critical aspect of your marketing strategy. You can use existing data, like the information from current customers and focus groups, to further narrow down and understand your target market. Industry trends also provide useful insights that can enhance your customer profiling.


A. Using Data from Current Customers and Focus Groups


Your current customers are an invaluable source of information. By analyzing their buying habits, preferences, and demographic data, you can gain a comprehensive understanding of your target market. As Eric Ngai, Li Xiu, and Dorothy C.K. Chau suggest in their article, "Using data mining to improve customer profiling" (2009), the data you gather from your current customers can be analyzed to identify key characteristics and behaviors. This process will allow you to better define your target market and tailor your marketing efforts to match their preferences.


Focus groups, another source of rich data, allow you to gain direct feedback from potential customers. By organizing and analyzing the data gathered from focus groups, you can identify shared characteristics and common concerns of your target customers. These insights can be used to refine your marketing strategies and improve your product or service offering.


B. Role of Industry Trends and Existing Data


Industry trends provide a macro perspective on market changes, evolving customer needs, and potential untapped markets. By keeping an eye on industry trends, you can proactively adjust your target market and stay ahead of the competition.


Existing data, such as market research reports, social media analytics, and customer reviews, can also be used to refine your target market. This data can provide insights into the preferences, behaviors, and demographics of your target customers.

IX. Applying Your Target Market Strategy


As an aspiring entrepreneur, once you have identified and defined your target market, the next crucial step is applying your target market strategy effectively. This section will guide you on how to incorporate your target market strategy into your overall marketing plan, explore the impact of target market strategy on the marketing mix, and provide an example of a social media marketing campaign tailored to a specific target market.


A. How to Incorporate Target Market Strategy into Your Overall Marketing Plan


Your target market strategy should be an integral part of your overall marketing plan. It should align with and support your business objectives, ensuring that your marketing efforts are focused and impactful. To incorporate your target market strategy into your marketing plan, follow these steps:


  1. Define clear marketing objectives: Clearly articulate what you aim to achieve with your marketing efforts. Your objectives should be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).

  2. Align messaging and positioning: Craft your marketing messages and positioning to resonate with your target market. Understand their needs, challenges, and aspirations, and tailor your messaging accordingly. Communicate the unique value proposition that sets your product or service apart.

  3. Choose appropriate marketing channels: Select the marketing channels that best reach and engage your target market. Consider where your target audience spends their time, whether it's on social media platforms, industry-specific websites, or offline channels. Leverage both traditional and digital marketing channels to maximize your reach.

  4. Develop compelling content: Create content that appeals to your target market's interests, pain points, and aspirations. Whether it's blog articles, videos, social media posts, or email newsletters, the content you produce should provide value and establish you as an authority in your niche.

  5. Personalize your marketing campaigns: Tailor your marketing campaigns to address the specific needs and preferences of your target market. Consider segmenting your target market further and creating personalized messaging or offers for different subsets of your audience.


B. The Impact of Target Market Strategy on the Marketing Mix

Your target market strategy has a profound impact on your marketing mix, which consists of the 4Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Let's explore how your target market strategy influences each element:


  1. Product: Your target market's preferences and needs should shape your product development or refinement efforts. By understanding their desires, pain points, and expectations, you can create a product that meets their specific requirements and stands out in the market.

  2. Price: Your target market's willingness to pay and perceived value of your product or service should guide your pricing strategy. Determine the price range that aligns with their purchasing power and balances your business goals.

  3. Place: Consider the channels and distribution methods that best suit your target market's buying habits. Ensure that your product is available where and when they prefer to make their purchases, whether it's online, in-store, or through specific distribution partnerships.

  4. Promotion: Craft your promotional campaigns and messages to appeal directly to your target market. Utilize the channels and mediums that resonate most with them. Tailor your marketing communication to highlight the benefits and solutions your product offers to their specific needs.


C. Example of a Social Media Marketing Campaign Tailored to a Specific Target Market

To illustrate the application of a target market strategy in a real-world scenario, let's consider a social media marketing campaign for a fitness app targeting health-conscious millennials. The campaign's objective is to increase app downloads and engagement among this specific target market segment.


  1. Identify key social media platforms: Research indicates that health-conscious millennials are active users of platforms like Instagram and TikTok. Focus on these platforms for the campaign.

  2. Develop engaging content: Create visually appealing and informative content showcasing the app's


X. Challenges in Target Marketing and Overcoming Them


In the process of defining and reaching your target market, you will inevitably face certain challenges. However, with strategic thinking and careful planning, these hurdles can be overcome.


A. Challenges like Crowded Marketplace, Untapped Markets, and Targeting Multiple Target Markets


A crowded marketplace is one of the most common challenges in target marketing. In highly competitive business markets, it becomes increasingly difficult to differentiate your product or service. According to Melewar and Nguyen's "Marketing
Challenges in a Turbulent Business Environment" (2015), the key to standing out in a crowded marketplace lies in developing a unique value proposition that meets the specific needs of your target market.


Untapped markets present both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge lies in identifying and understanding these potential customers. On the positive side, untapped markets can represent a valuable source of growth.


Targeting multiple target markets is another challenge. It involves understanding and catering to the needs of different market segments without losing focus or diluting your marketing message. Segmenting your market and creating customer profiles for each segment can be an effective strategy here.


B. Role of Digital Marketing in Reaching Different Target Audiences


Digital marketing plays a pivotal role in overcoming these challenges. It allows for precise targeting, enabling you to reach different target audiences with tailored marketing messages. By leveraging the power of social media, SEO, content marketing, and email marketing, you can engage your target market in meaningful ways. Additionally, digital marketing provides valuable analytics tools, giving you insights into your audience's behaviors and preferences, which can help refine your marketing strategy.


C. Case Study in the Small Businesses Sector


Consider the case of a small business in the athletic shoe industry. This business faces a crowded marketplace with well-established competitors. By defining its target market as athletes who value sustainability, it managed to differentiate itself. It also used digital marketing to reach this specific group, sharing content on social media about the environmental benefits of their products.


The business also identified an untapped market in casual consumers who value sustainability. By creating a separate customer profile and marketing strategy for this group, the business was able to target this new market without alienating its core customer base.


XI. Conclusion


As we conclude this comprehensive journey through the landscape of target markets, let's recap the salient points we have covered. Understanding and defining your target market is not just a smart business move—it's an absolute necessity. It provides a North Star for your entire entrepreneurial journey, guiding your product development, business model, and marketing strategy.


The importance of a clearly defined target market in your marketing efforts cannot be overstated. It provides focus and direction, enabling you to use your resources more efficiently and effectively. By understanding the needs, wants, and behaviors of your target customers, you can create more personalized and impactful marketing campaigns. It also allows you to identify gaps in the market, granting you a competitive edge.


But the journey doesn't stop once you've defined your target market. As markets evolve and consumer behaviors change, it's vital to continually refine and adapt your target market strategies. Regular market research, customer feedback, and data analysis will ensure that your strategies remain aligned with your market's changing landscape.


Remember, your target market isn't just a demographic or a statistic. They are real people with real needs and wants, and your business exists to meet those needs and wants. The better you understand your target market, the better equipped you will be to deliver a product or service that they genuinely value.


As aspiring entrepreneurs, let this be your mantra: Know your market, serve your market, grow your market.


Check out our other useful resources, where we break down key terms and concepts to further enhance your entrepreneurial acumen including our 60-day start-up accelerator course. This comprehensive course, powered by AI, is designed to help you launch and scale a successful business. No matter where you are in your entrepreneurial journey, Bpeneur is here to guide and support you every step of the way.

What are 4 ways to define your target market?

Defining your target market can be achieved through:
Demographic Segmentation: Analyzing factors like age, gender, income, education level, and occupation.
Geographic Segmentation: Identifying your customers based on their geographical location such as country, region, or city.
Psychographic Segmentation: Understanding personality traits, values, attitudes, interests, and lifestyles of your potential customers.
Behavioral Segmentation: Segmenting based on customer's behavior, usage rate, purchasing habits, and loyalty towards your product or service.Accordion Description

What is an example of defining a target market?

An example of defining a target market is focusing on middle-aged, urban professionals with high disposable income and a preference for sustainable and luxury products. This target market consists of individuals aged 35 to 55, residing in urban areas, and possessing stable careers and above-average disposable income. They value sustainability and prioritize brands that align with their eco-conscious values. To reach this target market, businesses can leverage digital marketing channels, such as social media, to showcase their sustainable and luxury products. Collaborating with influencers who resonate with this demographic can also help establish brand credibility and increase visibility. By tailoring their products and messaging to appeal to this target market, businesses can effectively capture their attention and foster brand loyalty.

How do you identify your target audience?

To identify your target market, you need to conduct thorough market research and analysis. This involves analyzing demographic data, studying customer behavior, conducting surveys or interviews, and utilizing social media and online analytics tools. By understanding your product or service, studying your competition, and gathering insights from potential customers, you can identify key characteristics, preferences, and needs of your target market. This information will help you create customer profiles, segment your market, and tailor your marketing strategies to effectively reach and engage your target audience.

XII.References

I. Introduction

"Market orientation and business performance." (Slater, Stanley F., and John C. Narver. American Marketing Association, 1994)

II. The Importance of Defining a Target Market

"Market segmentation: A review." (Wedel, Michel, and Wagner A. Kamakura. Handbook of marketing research. Vol. 2. Sage Publications, 2000.)

III. Understanding Different Types of Target Markets

"Market segmentation: Conceptual and methodological foundations." (Kotler, Philip. Marketing management: Analysis, planning, and control. Prentice-Hall, 1980.)

IV. How to Identify Your Target Market

"Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior." (Ajzen, Icek, and Martin Fishbein. Prentice-Hall, 1980.)

V. Segmenting Your Target Market

"Market segmentation: Organizational archetypes and research agendas." (Dibb, Sally. European Journal of Marketing, 2005.)

VI. Analyzing Your Target Market

"Market-driven management: Strategic and operational marketing." (Lambin, Jean-Jacques. Macmillan International Higher Education, 2010.)

VII. Understanding Your Target Customers

"Consumer behavior and marketing strategy." (Peter, J. Paul, and Jerry C. Olson. McGraw Hill, 2010.)

VIII. Using Existing Data to Refine Your Target Market

"Using data mining to improve customer profiling." (Ngai, Eric, Li Xiu, and Dorothy C. K. Chau. Expert Systems with Applications, 2009.)

IX. Applying Your Target Market Strategy

"Strategic marketing planning: theory, practice and research agendas." (McDonald, Malcolm. Journal of Marketing Management, 1992.)

X. Challenges in Target Marketing and Overcoming Them

"Marketing Challenges in a Turbulent Business Environment." (Melewar, T.C. and Nguyen, B. Springer, 2015.)